2019 African Individual Championships (Tunis, Tunisia)

This has been an outstanding year for African chess thus far. With successful subzonals held, new zone format and the groundbreaking Grand Chess Tour held in Abidjan, there is hope that this just may be the “African Century.” The momentum continues in Tunis, Tunisia where the 2019 African Individual is being held. It is the home of the first Grandmaster from the African continent in Slim Bouaziz (1993).

The field this year is the strongest in many years with seven GMs and 13 IMs. While Arkady Dvorkovich’s initiative to spread chess to developing regions can be applauded, what is happening on the continent is simply and natural evolution during a time when information acquisition and online competition is widely available.

GM Bassem Amin
Photo by David Llada

Since Bassem Amin won his 5th title last year, Egypt has gained another Grandmaster in Adham Fawzy and Algeria has a young GM in 21-year old Bilel Bellahcene. Bellahcene won the 4.1 zone with a 9-0 score! Another young player to watch in Madagascar FIDE Master Fy Rakotomaharo who won the 4.3 zone with an 8/9 score.

One of the returnees to the championship is 11-time Moroccan champion Hichem Hamoudouchi who was once the continent’s strongest player. Hamdouchi moved to France, switched his federation, got married to WGM Adina-Maria Bogza and became French national champion in 2013. He later moved to Qatar and changed his federation back to his native affiliation. He bolsters a powerful lineup with Egypt’s Amin and Ahmed Adly, his successors in carrying the African mantle. Hamdouchi was the first player on the continent to eclipse 2600 and Amin was the first player to pass the 2700 mark. Egypt’s Essam El-Gindy and South Africa’s Kenny Solomon round out the field of Grandmasters.

CIV Invitational - Round 1 - IM Andrew Kayonde (Zambia)

IM Andrew Kayonde of Zambia looks to join the World Cup field
Photos by Alina L’Ami

With this year being a World Cup qualifier, 44 hopefuls have assembled in Tunis for the last two spots. Bellahcene (winner of subzonal 4.1), Adly (winner of subzonal 4.2), Rakotomaharo (winner of subzonal 4.3) have already qualified. Twenty-two year old IM Daniel Anwuli (Nigeria), who won subzonal 4.4 has also qualified. The World Cup will take place in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia from 9 September to 4 October 2019.

Eighteen federations have sent players with host Tunisia fielding seven, Nigeria with six and Zambia with four in the Open Section. The event should see quite a few upsets as this is one of the few opportunities for players to face GM-level competition on Africa soil.

The women’s section has 22 players from 11 federations with host Tunisia carrying five players. Egypt’s Shahenda Wafa will defend her crown as the top seed with her older sister Shrook Wafa, a two-time champion. Both Egypt and Algeria occupy the top seven slots and have dominated the continental championships in the past 15 years.

WGM Shahenda Wafa, 2018 African Women's Champion

WGM Shahenda Wafa, 2018 African Women’s Champion

With Zambia’s Lorita Mwango seeded 8th at 1931, she will look to upset the tables as she did a few years back with several upset wins. Jesse February of South Africa and 4.4 zonal champion Toritsemuwa Ofowino of Nigeria have high hopes.

Note: There is no official website, but several websites (i.e., Africa Chess Media and Kenya Chess Masala) will be covering the action with The Chess Drum. There is also the African Chess Confederation (ACC) Facebook page.

Drum Coverage: https://www.thechessdrum.net/
Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
PGN Games: (Open, Women)
Regulations: https://www.fide.com/


  1. Round #1:
    Tournament starts off with a few nicks

    Venue for the 2019 African Individual Chess Championships


    In general the top seeds prevailed… except for one result. IM Rodwell Makoto got a taste of home cooking with a loss to an unheralded Tunisian Jmila Omar. Nevertheless, it is a long tournament and it is much better to suffer these in the beginning when the overall result is still in doubt. In fact, there will mostly likely be more upsets in early rounds when players may not be as alert and recovering from travel.

    GM Bassem Amin readying to play Prince Daniel Mulenga of Zambia. GM Ahmed Adly poses for a photo and GM Hicham Hamdouchi waits for Tunisian IM, Achraf Hbacha.

    All of the 2500+ players won their games without incident, but there were a few rating upsets with Fawzy (2476) being held by Angolan International Master David Silva (2246). Tunisia’s Yacine Barbaria (2210) held IM Mahfoud Oussedik (2440) and Nigeria’s Chukwunonso Oragwu (2191) split the point with GM El-Gindy (2423).

    Here is the upset win of the round…


    The opening move is made at the board of Algeria’s Amina Mezioud’s board.
    Photos courtesy of Dr. Hesham Elgendy

    The women’s field was about almost perfect in terms of the expected results. All eleven games were decisive with the rating favorite coming out victorious. The next round will be a lot more competitive and most likely contain an upset or two. The games for the second round will result in an accelerated pairing with many of the contenders playing each other. Sometimes it is good to play the strongest players first.

    The women’s field is quite small, but eleven federations is a positive development. In the continuing discussion of equality in chess, it appears that there is a lot to be done raise the interest level of girls and women. It is a worldwide issue, but perhaps many girls now find the game appealing.

    Round #1 (All Games)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  2. Round #2:
    Tense battles in Open Section… Lorita Mwango breaks through!


    One of the truths about African chess is you never really know how strong a player from the continent is. The idea that Africans play in so few international tournaments is lost on the fact that the continent is awash is talent. In more recent times, strong players in the first round of Olympiad tournaments have found out the hard way.

    For the African Championships, even some African GMs discover hidden landmines and upsets are inevitable. Nigeria’s Chukswunonso Oragwu (2191) faced Hesham Abdelrahman (2417), 2016 African Champion and was able grind out a win to collect the first GM scalp of the tournament.

    GM Hesham Abdelrahman being hunted by FM Chuks Oragwu
    Photo by Amira Marzouk (Algeria)

    Several GMs have already ceded draws and Essam El-Gindy (2423) was held for the second time. Kenny Solomon (2375) split the point with his compatriot Calvin Klaasen. The rest of the GMs scored wins. Here is one from the former African (and French) Champion, Hicham Hamdouchi and Adham Fawzy’s miraculous escape:

    There were rating upsets as well with draws occurring between players with 200-point difference. Zambia’s Prince Mulenga (2279) lost to Winston-Onyiah Sasha (1968) and Ethiopia’s Mesfin Leykun (2160) held Mahfoud Oussedik (2440).

    Round 3 will finally feature GM clashes as Bassem Amin will face Bilel Bellahcene and Hicham Hamdouchi will face Ahmed Adly.


    Zambia’s Lorita Mwango (right) pressing forward against Amina Mezioud
    Photo by Amira Marzouk (Algeria)

    Lorita Mwango (1931) has done it again! The Zambian has continued to upset the tables in Africa and upset the 3rd seeded Amina Mezioud (2128) of Algeria. She is now on 2/2 with three other players. Defending champion Shahenda Wafa (2175) was also slowed by Lina Nassr (1982) who ably held her to a draw.

    Drum Coverage: https://www.thechessdrum.net/
    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  3. Round #3:
    Tournament heats up… top seed Bassem Amin goes down!


    It was “Fire on Board” at the 2019 African Championships as the top two boards saw titanic struggles lead to decisive results. Amin-Ballahcene and Hamdouchi-Adly represented three different generations of chess.

    GM Bassem Amin battling upstart GM Bilel Ballahcene
    Photo by Tunisian Chess Federation

    Last year Bilel Bellahcene transferred his affiliation from France to Algeria and played top board at the 2018 Chess Olympiad. He was actually born in Strasbourg, France and was one of their top juniors winning five junior titles and the under-16 World Blitz Championship. Along with Hamdouchi’s return to Morocco, the African field has gotten more competitive.

    GM Bilel Bellahcene
    Photo by Kim Bhari

    Bellahcene sat down to play black against African ace Bassem Amin who sits on an 2707 Elo. The game started as a French, but then transposed into a type of Closed Sicilian. The Algerian played energetically and a middlegame skirmish ensued. After 33…Rg7 34.Qh1 black played 33…Nxe5!? to get at white’s exposed king.

    The beauty was that black had a passed b-pawn which tied up white’s army, so the Egyptian sacrificed an exchange for an absolutely crazy position. When the position clarified, black had an extra exchange and pawn. Ballahcene then broke all resistance after sacrificing back the exchange for a pawn, thus netting two pawns. The rest was trivial.

    In Hamdouchi-Amin, the game begin 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nf6!? known as the Nimzovich Sicilian. The Egyptian most likely sidestepping preparation and the deep experience of his opponent. The game ended up with several imbalances and in the middlegame, black decided that it was time to seek initiative on the kingside, but the Moroccan sought to simply by trading queens. Black uncorked 38…Ne3+! forcing white to backtrack. With mounting pressure, white could no longer hold the position together. After the cute 49…Rxf2+! 50.Rxf2 Ne3+ black was able to get a winning initiative.

    GM Hicham Hamdouchi facing the younger African Lion GM Ahmed Adly

    Adly has always been a difficult opponent because he plays very enterprising chess where he takes you away from main lines and outplays you. When he sees the initiative, he comes with full force and it’s hard to stop the momentum. With his win and Amin’s loss, the field is wide open. There is still a matter of upsets down the road as the hyenas are prowling among the lions.

    In other action, the other three GMs got -1 for the day as both Kenny Solomon and Adham Fawzy were held and Essam El-Gindy lost. Albeit, IM Adlane Arab weighs 100 more Elo than Solomon, so it was a fair result for both. In a GM upset, Tunisia’s Zoubaier Amdouni (2248) toppled El-Gindy (2423) as the Egyptian GM remains winless in three games.

    To demonstrate how wide open this tournament is, Bellahcene and Adly are on 3/3 and the next 15 players are within a point of the lead. IMs Fy Rakotomaharo and Andrew Kayonde both won their games and stand at 2.5/3. They will face each other in the next round. The fourth round should also be interesting as both Amin and Hamdouchi will try to rebound from losses.

    Round #3 (Selected Games – Open)

    Round #4

    GM Ahmed Adly (Egypt) – GM Bilel Bellahcene (Algeria)
    IM Andrew Kayonde (Zambia) – IM Fy Rakotomaharo (Madagascar)
    IM Stanley Chumfwa (Zambia) – GM Bassem Amin (Egypt)
    IM Daniel Anwuli (Nigeria) – GM Hicham Hamdouchi (Morocco)
    FM Simplice Degondo (Ivory Coast) – IM Adlane Arab (Algeria)


    Tops boards yield decisive results!
    Aishat Ibrahim (Nigeria) vs. Jesse February (South Africa)
    Photos courtesy of Tunisian Chess Federation

    Another round of bloody chess in the women’s field. Out of 11 matches only one ended peacefully… between two Tunisians. The rest of the players were in a fighting mood. Many of the top women in Africa have already won the continental title, but that does not stop them from having the hunger needed to perform well. With Egypt’s Mona Khaled having made way for the newer generation.

    Shrook Wafa continued her march with another win over her compatriot Ayah Moaataz. Sabrina Latreche beat an ambitious Lorita Mwango who was coming off of a win over Amina Mezioud. So Wafa and Latrech are the only players with 3/3. Mezioud recovered by beating the defending champion Shahenda Wafa. There is still lots of time to make up ground. Upsets are lurking in the tournament hall.

    Round #3 (All Games – Women)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  4. Round #4:
    Adly and Shrook win… both lead the field on 4/4


    Tunisia is sizzling right now. It is not the heat of the weather, but it is the action at Hotel Caribbean. After the top seed went down yesterday, the player who beat lost to Ahmed Adly leaving him with the only perfect score.

    GM Ahmed Adly five years ago in Tromso, Norway.
    Will he be able to take the world stage again?
    Photo by David Llada

    Adly trotted out a Catalan and Bellahcene entered a sharp line entailing a pawn sacrifice with 7…Nc6!? 8.Bxc6 bxc6 9.Nxc6, but must have forgotten his preparation. Black would give up a pawn for the two bishops, never got enough and his compromised structure suffered. In the ensuing endgame, black had a lot more space but a compromised pawn structure. Eventually white collected a few pawns and was able to push for the win.

    Interestingly enough, none of the seven GMs qualified for second board which was a battle of International Masters. Both Andrew Kayonde and Fy Rakotomaharo have shown considerable talent on the international stage and aspirants for the GM title. Both both having led their respective countries in the 2018 Batumi Olympiad. Kayonde became a sensation for drawing with Vassily Ivanchuk.

    Andrew Kayonde battling Fy Rakotomaharo, 1/2
    Photo by Aishat Ibrahim

    In their game, the Zambian trotted out a type of London System and the player from Madagascar adopted a very solid setup before lashing out with 18…f5. It seemed to be the typical race on the wings… white trying to crash through on the queenside and black trying to checkmate on the kingside. In the tense battle, white decided to sacrifice the exchange with 33.Rc6, but did not gain an advantage. The game later clarified in a drawn knight ending.

    Bassem Amin got back on track with a masterful endgame technique against Zambia’s Stanley Chumfwa.

    Hicham Hamdouchi also won his game against Nigerian hopeful Daniel Anwuli. While Adham Fawzy and Essam El-Gindy contributed to the resurgence of the GMs, Hesham Abdelrahman lost again to FM Oussama Douissa of Tunisia. The Tunisians have been defending their flag quite well.

    GM Essam El-Gindy

    GM Essam El-Gindy
    Photo by James Mwangi

    Overall the field remains tight with Adly on 4/4 but a pack of eight players follow on 3/4. Adly will face Amin in round 5 which means he will have faced the top three in the field. Lot of interesting battle on tap!

    Round #4 (Selected Games – Open)

    Round #5

    GM Bassem Amin (Egypt) – GM Ahmed Adly (Egypt)
    GM Hicham Hamdouchi MAR – GM Adham Fawzy (Egypt)
    GM Bilel Bellahcene (Algeria) – IM Andrew Kayonde (Zambia)
    IM Adlane Arab (Algeria) – IM Achraf Hbacha (Tunisia)
    IM Fy Rakotomaharo (Madagascar) – GM Solomon Kenny (South Africa)


    Very nice head coverings and flowers over here!

    The women field had two draws in round four. That is the most draws in any of the four rounds. Maybe someone should punish them for too many draws! The reality is that as more games are played people are finding their form and the players are more than likely facing their equals. Unfortunately for the African field, Shrook Wafa has not found her equal yet.

    Wafa won her fourth game in a complete demolition of black. This was absolutely poor preparation by black as she opted to capture a pawn only to allow a winning initiative right in the opening. After 16.e6, black was already in dire straits. Latreche had to resign in only 22 moves.

    Jesse February continues as she dealt Amina Mezioud her second loss. Black opted for a French and it went into a mainline, but white released the tension too early with 6.dxc5 and allowed easy equality. After 11.Ne5?! black was fighting for the initiative. With white on the retreat, black struck with 16…Ne4 breaking all resistance. In Ravelomanana-Moaataz, it is hard to understand how the game transpired, but black appears winning after 41…d4! This was the last move given and the game was drawn.

    It appears that some of the players are not fully prepared in the openings, especially with the white pieces. Lina Nassr (1982) was upset by Amira Marzouk (1667) after being outplayed in the middlegame. Her play against white’s hanging pawns was instructive. She unleashed a small combination winning a pawn with the alert 24…Nxd4! 25.Bxd4 Rxd4! 26.Rxd4 Nc3 and the ushered her pawn advantage to victory.

    There are still many rounds remaining and there are some interesting matchups for the next round…

    Round #4 (All Games – Women)

    Round #5

    WIM Jesse Nikki February (South Africa) – WGM Shrook Wafa (Egypt)
    WIM Sabrina Latreche (Algeria) – WFM Amen Miladi (Tunisia)
    WGM Shahenda Wafa (Egypt) – Toritsemuwa Ofowino (Nigeria)
    WIM Eman Elansary (Egypt) – WFM Sabine Ravelomanana (Madagascar)
    WIM Ayah Moaataz (Egypt) – WFM Lorita Mwango (Zambia)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  5. Round #5:
    Amin beats Adly moves back into joint first… Shrook Wafa on 5/5


    GM Hesham Abdelrahman has exited the tournament after five rounds. The 2016 African Champion suffered three losses and one can only imagine that something is not well with the Egyptian player. Takaedza Chipanga of Zimbabwe also exited the tournament after forfeiting his last game. More details on these developments as they become available. We wish the best for them in the future.

    In round five action, the situation has become very intense at the half-way mark. It’s now a five-way tie after top seed Bassem Amin toppled Ahmed Adly. In this Egyptian derby, they battled in a Rossolimo and the queens came off after 14 moves. The position was a bit imbalanced, but white had the better structure.

    GM Bassem Amin vs. GM Ahmed Adly, 1-0

    As white’s knights held sway over black’s territory, Adly sacrifice a pawn to free his bishop. Amin pocketed the pawn, but later Another skirmish broke out. When the smoke cleared white had three passed pawns for a knight. It appears in this position Adly should be able to hold (after 52.Rxh6), but his knight begin to wander around on the queenside and even gobbled a b2-pawn… far away from the steamrolling fgh-pawns.

    As it turned out the pawns were simply too fast and Amin finished off with a cute 71.Rxe8! Adly may have missed a chance to maintain his one point lead against the field. With four rounds remaining it will be a dog fight.

    Adham Fawzy has been in good form so far. The relatively-new Grandmaster has long been one of the bright talents in Africa and is perhaps remembered for his sparkling win against Parham Maghadsoodloo which included a queen sacrifice.

    IM Adham Fawzy

    GM Adham Fawzy
    Photo by https://ajedreztricolor.com.ve/

    In Hamdouchi-Fawzy, white was very unambitious in the opening and allowed black to equalize quickly. As black begin to mobilize for a kingside onslaught, the Moroccan had to sacrifice a pawn to free his position. Both sides kept sacrificing pawns to gain time and the game was very dynamic. Then the tactically-alert Fawzy uncorked 33…Bxf3! and all of a sudden, black was completely winning. Black won yet another pawn and after a few more moves the Moroccan had seen enough. Hamdouchi has yet to find his footing, yet he is only a point out of contention.

    Bilel Bellahcene faced Andrew Kayonde’s Caro Kann and the strategical battle ended in the Algerian’s favor. In the middlegame with most of the pieces still in play, white started to find crack’s in black’s position and after 37.Bf5! black scrambled to plug up the holes. It was too late. White had already netted two pawns… then a third. The Grandmaster then sacrificed an exchange for a fourth pawn. In the end, the pawns were more than enough to secure the point.

    In other games, Adlane Arab beat Achraf Hbacha to remained undefeated. The wily veteran is seeking to remain in the hunt and it seeking to vault closer to 2500. He faced his opponents Stonewall Dutch, but had to grind out a win in a fascinating rook ending. Looking at the ending, it’s hard to understand how black could lose such a game. Take a look.

    Mahfoud Oussedik scored against Nigeria’s Femi Balogun to remain undefeated and only a half-point off the pace. Fy Rakotomaharo split the point with Kenny Solomon in a very typical intense Sicilian battle. Douglas Munenga of Zambia beat Chukwunonso Oragwu to also pull within half-point of the lead (3.5/5 with Oussedik and Rakotomaharo).

    GM Kenny Solomon (South Africa)
    Photo by Aishat Ibrahim

    Zambia is without question one of the strongest African federations. Home to the Amon Simutowe, the first African GM south of the Sahara, they have a number of hopefuls looking to score the title. While IMs like Daniel Jere and Chitumbo Mwali are not on the trip, they have more than enough. Stanley Chumfwa is one of the long-standing veterans and his win over the promising Angolan David Silva put him just a point of contention. Speaking of Zambians Prince Mulenga suffered three losses, but has scored two wins including a win over compatriot Musatwe Simutowe.

    One intriguing story (besides the father and son duo from Gabon) is the upset of Hesham Abdelraham (2417). Nigeria’s Sasha Winston-Onyiah (1968) beat the Egyptian GM bringing to question the state of his health. Three losses to players 2191, 2248 and 1968 is extremely unusual. Even at his worse form, such an event is unlikely to occur. Nevertheless, it may show that the rating pool remains depressed in Africa and such lower-rated players are far above their advertised rating.

    Round #5 (Selected Games – Open)

    At the halfway mark, there are the rankings…

    Top Pairings for Round #6

    GM Adham Fawzy (Egypt) – GM Bassem Amin (Egypt)
    GM Ahmed Adly (Egypt) – IM Adlane Arab (Algeria)
    GM Bilel Bellahcene (Algeria) – IM Mahfoud Oussedik (Algeria)
    FM Douglas Munenga (Zambia) – IM Fy Rakotomaharo (Madagascar)
    FM Oussama Douissa (Tunisia) – GM Hicham Hamdouchi (Morocco)


    Jesse February faced the wrath of Shrook Wafa’s Dragon Sicilian.
    Photo by Tunisian Chess Federation

    Again… the women’s field only had two decisive results. Surprisingly, players with the black pieces scored 9/11. Shrook Wafa has been in good form. Following her demolition of Amina Mezioud, she obliterated Jesse February with her pet Dragon. The game was actually following many theoretical discussions from the past. All the moves up until February’s 16.Bd4?? had been played before. The finish is brutal.

    Sabrina Letreche and Amen Miladi produced one of the most exciting games of the tournament. Pieces zipped around the board and at some points it appears as if someone emptied a container and dropped pieces on the board. In this tactical slugfest, both sides missed chances, but what more can be expected in this Sicilian games.

    The game started as a Paulsen and white adopted the Maroczy Bind. Black was fixing for a fight after 8…d5!? This game exploded in the middlegame and the evals definitely changed from move-to-move. White’s king safety was more important than any material advantage it had since black’s pieces were well-placed and ready to enter battle. Letreche did well to hold the position and dodged many bullets. It would remind one of Neo in the movie, Matrix.

    Watch this battle and hold onto your hats!

    What an adrenaline rush!

    So many of the women players are opting for the London System. It’s not clear if they are seeking to avoid the huge volumes of preparation, but it is not going to be an opening that you can hope to get much of an advantage. Shahenda Wafa is defending her title, but had already lost to Amina Mezioud. She needed a win to keep pace with her sister who is in great form. Toritsemuwa Ofowino, the 4.4 women’s zonal champion, is looking for greater opportunities in chess and is perhaps extra-motivated to have a good showing.

    Wafa trotted out the London System and black had no problem equalizing the position. Wafa was confident as the Elo favorite and her 32.Kc1 was to prevent a trade. In fact, white should have been happy to trade queens. Wafa got her king stuck in the center of the board with heavy pieces trolling the board. Ofowina’s 41…d4! was a powerful move exposing the white king to danger.

    Black ended up with passed a- and h-pawns which the lone white bishop and king would never be able to stop, but the Nigerian allowed white to keep her rook with 58…c5 instead of trading down with 58…Rxd4! when white can resign in a few moves. Ofowino managed to win the game and is now joint second with three other players on 3.5/5.

    Round #5 (All Games – Women)

    There are still many rounds remaining and there are some interesting matchups for the next round…

    Top Pairings for Round #6

    WGM Wafa Shrook (Egypt) – Ofowino Toritsemuwa (Nigeria)
    WIM Latreche Sabrina (Algeria) – WFM Ravelomanana Sabine (Madagascar)
    WFM Miladi Amen (Tunisia) – WIM Moaataz Ayah (Egypt)
    WIM Mezioud Amina (Algeria) – WFM Marzouk Amira (Tunisia)
    WIM Nassr Lina (Algeria) – WIM February Jesse Nikki (South Africa)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  6. Round #6:
    Amin on a roll, crushes Fawzy… Adly back in the hunt
    Shrook devastating field, 6/6


    Another exciting round of chess. Three of the top seeds are back on course and are sitting atop the field with 5/6. The situation may favor Ahmed Adly since he has already played three of the top seeds. He plays Adham Fawzy tomorrow. Neither Bassem Amin nor Bilel Bellahcene have played Hicham Hamdouchi. Amin plays Essam El-Gindy tomorrow while Bellahcene will play the undefeated Fy Rakotomaharo.

    In today’s games, Amin totally destroyed Fawzy who must’ve woken up this morning from a bad dream. With the white pieces, Fawzy essayed the Scotch Gambit and unknowingly went into a line where black has a huge plus score. It is surprising that the young GM would play this line against someone of Amin’s caliber. The lines are too concrete and black is generally able to equalize… if he can avoid traps. This game was a complete disaster for Fawzy and by move 15, he was strategically busted.

    Adly got back on the winning track with a win over Adlane Arab and his attempt to avoid the “Killer Catalan” with 5…b5!? This move is actually being tested at top level by none other than Viswanathan Anand, Evgeny Alekseev, and Jan-Krzysztof Duda. The line turned out to be very complicated and Adly showed better preparation and got a lasting advantage even with the queens off. The end of the game is instructive and proves that even with completely equal material, there is something to play for.

    Bilel Bellahcene – Mahfoud Oussedik
    saw 6.h4!? against the Najdorf

    Bellahcene, who was raised in France, has to be quite prepared to face Mahfoud Oussedik’s Najdorf, the main weapon of French player Maxime Vachier-Lagrave. Certainly there is a lot of discussion in Najdorf circles about ways to upset the dynamic defense.

    The new trend in the Najdorf is after 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.h4!? It appears that every other pawn move has been played on white’s sixth move (even 6.h3), so this is the latest. The idea is multifaceted and at the least, white can use the move to shore up his bishop on g5. There is also the idea of f3 and g4.. or even f4 and potentially g4!

    GM Bilel Bellahcene essaying the latest approach against Najdorf.
    Photo by Tunisia Chess Federation

    This game was a classical opposite wing battle and lived up to its billing. Without much help the white queen invaded black’s position and wreaked havoc after 27.Qh8+ Bf8 28.Qg8 Bb5 29.c3 Nb6 30.Qe6+ Kd8 31.Qxe5! The game was a clinic on how to catch an opponent flat-footed in preparation. Wonderful game by Bellahcene!

    Lastly, there were two similar endings in both sections today. In Miladi-Moaataz and Munenga-Rakotomaharo, there were rook endings with a- and h- pawns remaining for one side. As we segway to the women’s section, let’s look at the positions and see how they evolved.

    In the position above, black has to run his king over toward the rook to break the barrier and walk up the board to support the pawn while the rook helps to stop the enemy’s pawns. It is a common theme in rook endings. The rook can sometimes stop up to three pawns if the king is close enough.

    IM Fy Rakotomaharo (Madagascar)
    Photo by Amruta Mokal

    This position was very instructive because of the frequency in which rook endings occur and Rakotomaharo showed enough patience to prevent counterplay. The 20-year old IM remains undefeated, but will have a stiff test against Bellahcene tomorrow. He certainly has GM norm aspirations and of course, if he wins the tournament he will get the GM title outright. The Malagasy player won the 4.3 zonal with 8/9 so he is in excellent form.

    There were a good number of draws in today’s action. Since there are no rest days, it may be no wonder that fatigue may become a factor. The tournament standings are so critical that blunders as a result of fatigue can change the fortune of the tournament quickly. There were six draws from 21 games. We can expect more in the rounds to come as players become more cautious about their position and title chances.

    Top Pairings for Round #7

    IM Fy Rakotomaharo (Madagascar) – GM Bellahcene Bilel (Algeria)
    GM Amin Bassem (Egypt) – GM Essam El Gindy (Egypt)
    GM Fawzy Adham (Egypt) – GM Adly Ahmed (Egypt)
    IM Adlane Arab (Algeria) – GM Hicham Hamdouchi (Morocco)
    IM Mahfoud Oussedik (Algeria) – GM Solomon Kenny (South Africa)


    Back to business. Eleven games played. Eleven games decisive. The bad news is that Shahenda Wafa is all but eliminated from defending her title successfully, but her sister can be an able successor. Shrook Wafa played another sparkling game against Nigeria’s Toritsemuwa Ofowina. The 18.Rxd7! shot was the finsher on 23.Nd7+ black resigned.

    Zambia’s Lorita Mwango eliminated the defending champion from contention. Photo by Tunisia Chess Federation

    Sabrina Letreche has rebounded after being beaten badly by Wafa on board 1. Not often you get to see mate on the board but this game was decided when Sabine Ravelomanana had an oversight and lost a piece on move 12. There were some tactics in the middlegame and black ended up with three pawns for the piece, but they were trebled on the c-file. Letreche attacked the queenside pawns directly and begin to pick them off. Despite being a piece down, there are still chances to liquidate all pawns and begin counting. Before that happened the Ravelomanana walked into mate.

    Miladi-Moaataz had an encounter that ended with an instructive ending. As mentioned earlier Munenga-Rakotomaharo had a similar ending. This was a game to watch because white had more space the entire game before overextending her position. Suddenly, she ended up two pawns down and the Egyptian converted the win comfortably. Ending with a- and h- pawns are hard to defend against with any piece because it is hard to contain them both.

    There should be some discussion about the inclusion of a rest day for this tournament in the future. Some of the games in round six were not competitive. The original schedule had a free day for Saturday, but apparently the change in venue required a change in the schedule. It’s unfortunate because this tournament will be very close in the end. The open section will be especially tense the last three rounds.

    Round #6 (All Games – Women)

    There are still many rounds remaining and there are some interesting matchups for the next round…

    Top Pairings for Round #7

    WIM Mezioud Amina (Algeria) – WGM Wafa Shrook (Egypt)
    WIM Moaataz Ayah (Egypt) – WIM Latreche Sabrina (Algeria)
    Ofowino Toritsemuwa (Nigeria) – WIM Nassr Lina (Algeria)
    WIM Elansary Eman (Egypt) – WFM Miladi Amen (Tunisia)
    WFM Ravelomanana Sabine (Madagascar) – WFM Mwango Lorita (Zambia)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  7. Round #7:
    Adly storms into the lead…
    Rakotomaharo upsets Bellahcene, moves in joint 2nd with Amin…
    Shrook held, Latreche closes gap


    There is no odds-on favorite to win the 2019 edition of the African Individual Championship. The story of the day has to be the young IM from Madagascar Fy Rakotomaharo who stands as one of two undefeated players in the field. In his game today against Bilel Bellahcene, they entered a theoretical Queen’s Gambit line that has been tested thoroughly at the elite level.

    This game was a tense battle even following Reshevsky-Ragozin, 1937 for 13 moves. That game was drawn. This game was also level after twenty moves, and almost symmetrical. Then the fight began. Bellahcene uncorked the shot 30…Nxe4 which looks good, but misses a detail after 31.Nxc4 Nxf2 32.Qd6!

    After that white was slightly on top. Black’s pawn structure was in shambles and ripe for the picking. However, in severe time pressure Bellahcene played 38…Nd5?? with one minute on the clock and one move to get another 30 minutes. It was not to be. After 39.Nxd5 exd5 white has 40.Rxd4! when the white pawns will promote. Very intense!

    Ahmed Adly had won his second game since losing to top-seed Bassem Amin. He stands on 6/7. Incidentally, Amin was held today by Essam El-Gindy who started slow with 1/3, but now is on a run of 3.5/4. Perhaps his beautiful African shirts are the reasons for his rejuvenation! He split the point rather quickly today in a theoretical Sicilian Rossolimo, most of which had been played before! After 18 moves, they shook hands, and it amounted to a rest day for both players.

    Adham Fawzy was hoping for a better showing against Ahmed Adly today, but he was outplayed once again. This game was another Sicilian which left theory fairly early and while the game was dynamically balanced, black had more activity. Adly kept probing and white’s position became a bit disjointed defending so many weaknesses.

    Then came 42…Rxb2! and white had no choice but to donate the queen to avoid 43…Rdd2 and being squeezed. After getting three pieces for the queen, white had problems with coordination due to the passed pawns and exposed king. This makes it easier for the fleet-footed queen to pick off material. Ultimately, Adly’s pawns were steamrolling up the board and Fawzy resigned.

    Hicham Hamdouchi is a Moroccan and African legend. If he never played another game, his legacy is safe. He may still have a few wins in him, but today would not be that day. In his game against Adlane Arab, he played an ambitious opening with 6…f6 7.Bh4 g5 8. Bg3.

    After ten moves, his king had no shelter to speak of. Arab exploited this by sacrificing a pawn to expose the king even more. The Moroccan tried to simplify the position to reduce pressure on his king, but then fell into a petite combinaison losing immediately. Arab seems certain to get a GM norm.

    GM Kenny Solomon in a pitched battle with IM Mahfoud Oussedik

    South Africa’s Kenny Solomon, who is based in Italy, is the only other player with an undefeated mark after seven rounds. Employing the Old Indian Defense, the game was a strategic struggle before Mahfoud Oussedik sacrificed a critical pawn for no apparent compensation. The South African plowed in and got his first win since the opening round.

    In other action, Zoubaier Amdouni continues his solid result with a win over Nigeria’s Oladapu Adu. With a 2400 performance, he is the leading scorer for the host Tunisians losing only to Bellahcene. Zambia’s Andrew Kayonde and Zimbabwe’s Rodwell Makoto have climbed back to the upper half of the table.

    The Nigerians have fallen off the pace after hopes to make an impression in the tournament. Femi Balogun is the leading scorer on +1 while Adu and Daniel Anwuli are both at 50%. We haven’t heard much from the Libyan player Abobker Mohamed Elarabi, but he has put together a solid tournament losing only to Egyptians Adly and El-Gindy.

    Youngest player Tary Bongo (Gabon) vs. Ausumana Kamara (Sierra Leone)

    Top Pairings for Round #8

    GM Adly Ahmed (Egypt) – IM Rakotomaharo Fy Antenaina (Madagascar)
    IM Arab Adlane (Algeria) – GM Amin Bassem (Egypt)
    GM Solomon Kenny (South Africa) – GM Bellahcene Bilel (Algeria)
    GM El Gindy Essam (Egypt) – IM Kayonde Andrew (Zambia)
    IM Makoto Rodwell (Zimbabwe) – FM Amdouni Zoubaier (Tunisia)


    Anticipation of the start of the 7th round!

    Beautiful African flags adorn the playing hall
    All Photos by Tunisian Chess Federation

    Shrook Wafa was looking for a clean sheet in this tournament, but her run was stopped as Amina Mezioud held her despite a two-pawn deficit. As good as Wafa has been in this tournament, she is only one point ahead of the field as Letreche kept within arm’s distance with a convincing win against Ayah Moaataz.

    The question now seems to be the order of the medals as there are three players (Amina Mezioud, Eman Elansary and Lina Nassr) with 4.5/7 competing for the silver and bronze medals. There are also five players on +1 who still have a reasonable chance for the bronze.

    Round #7 (All Games)

    Top Pairings for Round #8

    WGM Wafa Shrook (Egypt) – WIM Nassr Lina (Algeria)
    WIM Latreche Sabrina (Algeria) – WIM Elansary Eman (Egypt)
    WFM Ravelomanana Sabine (Madagascar) – WIM Mezioud Amina
    WIM February Jesse Nikki (South Africa) – WIM Moaataz Ayah
    WFM Mwango Lorita (Zambia) – WFM Marzouk Amira (Tunisia)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  8. Round #8:
    Shrook Wafa wins the 2019 African Women’s Championship!!

    WGM Shrook Wafa, 2019 African Women's champion!

    Shrook Wafa is the 2019 African Women’s champion! In what has been a truly dominating performance, the 22-year old Egyptian wins her 3rd continental title winning consecutively in 2013 and 2014. Mabrouk! Photo courtesy of Babatunde Ogunsiku (Africa Chess Media)

    National Anthem


    It appears that the Egyptians and the Algerians are battling once again for positions on the medal stand and for spots in the World Cup. The showdown will come to a culmination tomorrow as the two countries will battle for silver and bronze. Tiebreaks will be a big factor in the final tally.

    Today, Shrook Wafa clinched her third title with one round to spare by dispatching of Algeria’s Lina Nassr in a game where she maintained pressure throughout. One of the trademarks of Wafa’s play this tournament was her consistency. She was well-prepared, played sharp lines and was in great form.

    In her game against Nassr, they enter a Scheveningen Sicilian, but both white’s 8.Re1 and black’s 12…Nb4 were a bit off. Black actually got good play with 16…d5! and took advantage of Wafa dithering with her f-rook. However, Nassr allowed Wafa to recover with a 24.Bg3 Ra8 25.Rac5 maneuver. From that point on, white was better and even doubled rooks on the 7th. Black’s pawns disappeared and in an ending three pawns up, she had enough to clinch her third continental title.

    Latreche-Elansary had an interesting game before it fizzled out into a draw. It appeared that white had a grip on the position with a pawn on d6 and a rook on the 7th rank. Black solved her problems tactically with 27…Bd4! 28.Bxd4 Rxd6! Black’s active pieces saved the day.

    One of the things, about the women’s games is that the “London System” is a very popular opening. It is an easy opening to play, but it doesn’t give white a chance to play for a lasting advantage. Some of the games appear that white is playing 1.d4 and 2.Bf4 by reflex without regard to what setup black is using. Watch how black dominates without white giving much of a fight in Sabine Ravelomanana and Amina Mezioud’s game.

    In February-Moaataz, the South African was trying to win her second consecutive game, but overextended her attack. February has somewhat of a crude style of attacking demonstrated by 21.Nf1 and 22.g4. Black seized on this by playing 24…Qh4 and raiding the weakened kingside. White later tried sacrificing the exchange after 31.Rxd5, but after 31…Qxd5 there was nothing but a prayer.

    On 32.Bxh6 g6 33.Bg7 black’s 33…Qd2! put an end to white’s attacking dreams. To add insult to injury, February overlooked mate in two. Again… a rest day should be mandatory in continental championships. Some of the play points to fatigue and it’s obvious that some players have “hit the wall” at the midway point.

    In another London System in Mwango-Moaataz, white failed to get a tangible advantage and fought hard to equalize black’s initiative. The game went on for 84 moves with white finally being able to equalize. The Zambian certainly dodged a bullet and is now on 4.5/8 and plays the champion Shrook Wafa.

    Round #8 (All Games)

    Top Pairings for Round #9

    WFM Mwango Lorita (Zambia) – WGM Wafa Shrook (Egypt)
    WGM Wafa Shahenda (Egypt) 2175 – WIM Latreche Sabrina (Algeria)
    WIM Moaataz Ayah (Egypt) – WIM Mezioud Amina (Algeria)
    WIM Elansary Eman (Egypt) – WFM Marzouk Amira (Tunisia)
    WIM Nassr Lina (Algeria) – WFM Miladi Amen (Tunisia)
    Ofowino Toritsemuwa (Nigeria) – WIM February Jesse Nikki (South Africa)
    Milena Daniel Welderufael (Eritrea) – WFM Ravelomanana Sabine (Madagascar)
    WCM Ampaire Shakira (Uganda) – Ntolo Darla Charlhess (Gabon)
    WCM Chihi Malek (Tunisia) – Ibrahim Aishat (Nigeria)
    Mululu Linah (Zambia) – WCM Hilali Wissal (Tunisia)
    WCM Hwass Zaineb (Tunisia) – WCM Yavo Tchetche Marie (Cote d’Ivoire)


    Grandmaster Ahmed Adly has a decorated chess career for Egypt and he is poised to had another landmark in his career. His win in round eight puts him at 7/8 with his sole loss to Bassem Amin. Thus, he will need a win tomorrow against Rodwell Makoto of Zimbabwe who has won his last four games.

    In his game against an undefeated Fy Rakotomaharo, Adly played an irregular opening and opted for a game where he could outplay his less-experienced opponent. That’s exactly what happened. The middlegame was very complicated, but white had developed a tremendous space advantage. Black’s pieces were a bit cluttered.

    Black sacrificed an exchange with 21…Rxc3 22.Bb2 Rxg3+ but white still maintained control despite exposed king. Adly employed an “Alekhine’s Gun” on the d-file, but the Malagasy player held his poise. That was until he fell into time pressure. Last round, his opponent blundered at move 40 and this time he would be the victim. After 39…Ba3?? 40.Rf4 Rf8 41.Rc4 wins material and black resigned.

    Most of the Grandmasters won today… all except Kenny Solomon and Adham Fawzy , the latter losing his third consecutive game. In the winner’s circle, Amin won his game after thoroughly outplaying Adlane Arab. It was a finachetto King’s Indian, but somewhere along the way, white never got any queenside play going. As the script goes, black headed for a kingside attack. Even a trade of queens didn’t lessen black’s pressure and he crashed through.

    As far as norms are concerned Adlane Arab has played four GMs and tallied a solid 5/8, but his performance rating is 2494, so he will most likely need to get a win to approach 2600 TPR. Simplice Degondo and Mohamed Elarabi Abobker are on 5/8 and a win will get him to 6/9. It is unclear whether they will get the performance rating to qualify. Bassem Amin will need to win out in order to claim the title with Makoto at least holding Adly. There are a lot of combinations that will determine who get the top three spots, but the certainty is that an Egyptian will secure gold. Should be an exciting round!

    IM Rodwell Makoto and Spencer Masango in at Batumi Olympiad. Makoto has a chance to affect the medal positioning in the final round. Photo by Daaim Shabazz

    Top Pairings for Round #8

    GM Adly Ahmed (Egypt) – IM Makoto Rodwell (Zimbabwe)
    GM Amin Bassem (Egypt) – IM Rakotomaharo Fy (Madagascar)
    GM Bellahcene Bilel (Algeria) – GM El Gindy Essam (Egypt)
    IM Zaibi Amir (Tunisia) – IM Arab Adlane (Algeria)
    FM Elarabi Abobker Mohamed (Libya) – IM Balogun Oluwafemi (Nigeria)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  9. Round #9:


    Ahmed Adly wins the 2019 African Individual Championship!
    Bassem Amin takes the silver… El-Gindy bronze!

    There were a lot of combinations in terms of the medal race, but in the end, everyone knew an Egyptian Grandmaster would be on the gold medal stand. The question was, “Would it be Adly or Amin?” GM Ahmed Adly had to be held and GM Bassem Amin had to win for for the current position to change. It didn’t happen and Adly won his game against a streaking IM Rodwell Makoto to win the title outright.

    It was a Catalan and rather equal throughout, but the Egyptian simply understood the position better. The move 28.Bf7+! was a punch to the gut since not accepting the bishop meant black is mated after 28…Kh8 29.g6 when 29…h6 30.Rxh6 is mate. If 28…Kf8, then 29.Rxh7 and black is gone. So after 28…Kxf7 29. Rxh7 Be8 30.Rxg7+ Kf8 31.Rxb7 and white won in a couple of more moves.

    GM Ahmed Adly, 2019 African Champion
    Photo by Wissal Hilali

    What a momentous victory for Adly, his third title. In won his first championship with 7/9 in 2005 and second in 2011 where he scored 8/9. He repeated this 8/9 winning formula this edition and was a deserving winner. He will be an capable African representative in Khanty-Mansisyk.

    With Adly winning quickly, Amin-Rakotomaharo didn’t exert themselves in a game that wasn’t going to change the medal outlook. In fact, Rakotomaharo had an outstanding tournament losing only one game to the eventual champion last round. Just short of a GM norm, but this experience is one of his best to date.

    For GM Bassem Amin, he will qualify for the World Cup along with Adly. IM Fy Rakotomaharo will be joining them as a zonal 4.3 champion as will IM Daniel Anwuli, winner of zone 4.4 and GM Bilel Bellahcene, the winner of zone 4.1. Adly had already qualified as the winner of zone 4.2, so the next spot will probably go to GM Essam El-Gindy, the next qualifier in line. Stay tuned for official report.

    National Anthem

    Round #9 (Selected Games – Open)


    Shrook Wafa wins 3rd title…
    Algeria’s Latreche prevents an Egyptian shutout, takes the silver… Mooataz bronze!

    Shrook Wafa, 2019 African Women's Champion

    WGM Shrook Wafa
    2019 African Women’s Champion
    Photo by Egyptian Chess Federation

    With gold already decided, the Egyptians were looking for more medals. Actually Sabrina Latreche had already clinched a medal and actually lost to the defending champion Shahenda Wafa. Both Ayah Mooataz and Eman Elansary won equaling the Algerian on 6/9, but had weaker numbers on all three tiebreaks.

    Unfortunately, Latreche will be the only Algerian making the trip to Khanty-Mansisysk since Amina Mezioud’s loss to Mooataz caused her to miss the silver medal. The Algerian simply got lost in the complications. Heartbreaking loss. Elansary brutally mated Tunisia’s Amira Marzouk to end just out of the medals, but ending with a strong result.

    The host Tunisians did well with in terms of Elo performance with four players showing gains…

    • WFM Amen Miladi (1777, +60)
    • WFM Amira Marzouk (1667, +30.6)
    • WCM Malek, Chihi (1526, +22.8)
    • WCM Zaineb Hwass (1403, 23.2)

    Round #9 (All Games – Women)

    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/

  10. Egypt’s Adly, Wafa are 2019 African Champions!

    Egypt Egypt Egypt

    In what has become somewhat of a tradition on the continent of Africa, the Egyptian’s major haul in continental championships continued in Hammamet, Tunisia. The Republic of Egypt took five of the six medals in the Open and Women’s African Individual Championships over the past week and cemented their status as the African Lion.

    Shrook Wafa, 2019 African Women's Champion

    From left to right: WGM Shahenda Wafa, WIM Eman Elansary, GM Bassem Amin, GM Essam El-Gindy, GM Bassem Amin, WIM Ayah Mooataz, WGM Shrook Wafa. Photo by Egyptian Chess Federation

    GM Ahmed Adly, 2019 African Champion
    Photo by Ahmed Adly

    Two weeks before the tournament began, there were major changes in the venue and the schedule. The site moved from Tunis to Hammamet and the playing schedule eliminated the double rounds that were to occur on three of the days. This was mandated by FIDE because continental tournaments are World Cup qualifiers and had to meet specific requirements. In order to comply with the one-round-per-day requirement, the rapid and blitz tournaments were cancelled.

    Nevertheless, the tournament was completed in a spacious venue with 18 federations represented. Bassem Amin was the only 2700-level player in the field and an odds-on favorite. There was new life breathed into the African championship due to the return of Moroccan legend Hicham Hamdouchi and the emergence of young stars like Fy Rakotomarharo (Madagascar), Daniel Anwuli (Nigeria) and Bilel Bellahcene (Algeria). In the end, it was Ahmed Adly who notched his third African crown.

    GM Essam El-Gindy

    GM Essam El-Gindy will be joining Adly and Amin for 2019 World Cup
    Photo by James Mwangi

    IM Daniel Anwuli and IM Fy Rakotomaharo will also travel for the World Cup. Will they be future challengers for the African crown? Photo by Aishat Ibrahim

    IM Daniel Anwuli and IM Fy Rakotomaharo will also travel for the World Cup. Will they be future challengers for the African crown? Photo by Aishat Ibrahim

    In the women’s field, many of the same contenders were present as they have been for the past eight years. Mona Khaled would not be in the Egyptian delegation, but Shahenda Wafa would carry the flag as the defending champion. Her sister Shrook Wafa was a two-time champion winning her 2013 title in Tunis, Tunisia and 2014 title in Windhoek, Namibia. She carries her third title home after winning in Hammamet, Tunisia.

    Shrook Wafa, 2019 African Women's Champion

    WGM Shrook Wafa
    2019 African Women’s Champion
    Photo by Egyptian Chess Federation

    Algeria’s Amina Mezioud and Sabrina Latreche have quite a number of accolades over the years and Lorita Mwango of Zambia has been a top contender. What is clear is that the balance of power still lies in the north and those in the sub-Saharan region will be seeking to produce stronger competition in years to come. Nigeria already has a “First GM” campaign.

    Hopefully, in the next edition there will be the rapid and blitz segments and the presence of more federations. Some of the glaring absences were recent participants Botswana, Ghana and Kenya, the latter two hosting zonal events this year.

    In addition more arrangement should be made for publicity of this important event there were only three organizations reporting on the event this year. Africa Chess Media had daily coverage, Kenya Chess Masala filed reports and of course The Chess Drum has provided coverage since its first report in 2001 when GM Hicham Hamdouchi won the event! Hopefully by the next continental championships we will see more GMs in the field. Let’s make this an African century in chess!

    Drum Coverage: https://www.thechessdrum.net/
    Chess-Results: (Open, Women)
    PGN Games: (Open, Women)
    Regulations: https://www.fide.com/



    GOLD- GM Ahmed Adly (Egypt)

    SILVER- GM Bassem Amin (Egypt)

    BRONZE – GM Essam El-Gindy (Egypt)


    GOLD – WGM Wafa Shrook (Egypt)

    SILVER – WIM Sabrina Latreche (Algeria)
    South Africa

    BRONZE – WIM Eyah Mooataz (Egypt)

  11. Near Perfect report !!
    Good reportrers with their details
    We can learn, and progress, step by step
    Thanks much for journalists, reporters, organisers, chess players
    Support, and Good Luck for Africa and his chess players,
    And his organisations

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